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What is Chord?

Chord is a simple protocol and scalable distributed search in P2P networks linking key (keys) with nodes. It is designed to operate in a decentralized (ie, no privileged nodes), and its operation can end with a thorough search.

It is considered a network of 2m nodes, which can be active or absent from the network. Given a set of keys in the network, the Chord protocol is responsible for allocating the keys to the nodes existing assets and keep those assignments dynamically, ie as nodes go in and out of the network. All other tasks related to network-authentication, data storage, interface, etc .- are the responsibility of higher levels of architecture.

The assignment of identifiers to nodes and keys is done through a hash function consistent. Indeed, when a node or enter the network key, receive an identification (ID) that is obtained by calculating the hash (SHA-1) of the IP node or key value. This hashing are randomized access to the system, so it is difficult for an attacker nodes or straight key or strategic position in the network.

A k key id is assigned to node id k if it is active in the network. If k is not, it finds the first node after k is active and assigned to the key: this replaced node is called k successor (successor (k)).

When k is connected to the network, its successor node will transfer the keys that were meant for him. When a node leaves the network, transferring the keys we took over to his successor, ie the node with id next to yours. With these mechanisms, ensuring the network self-regulation and maintenance of the keys even in a context of mobility of participating nodes.

Ants P2P

Ants P2P (in Spanish “Ants P2P “) is an open system of encrypted P2P written in Java under the GNU.

Ants P2P is a third generation of P2P developed by Italian Roberto Rossi. Figure all that is sent or received and hides the user’s IP address. Furthermore, the Ants P2P

* Update software automatically.
* Allow to-end encryption (AES 128 – DH 512).
* Support for partial downloads.
* Perform an alternative source Autosearch partial discharges.
* Allows the use of IRC.
Instant Messaging anonymously.

Ares Galaxy – The View Back

Ares Galaxy, popularly known as Ares is a P2P file distribution created in mid-2002. It is free software and is developed in Delphi programming language for Microsoft Windows operating system. Currently you can use the Ares network of GNU / Linux by GIFT, or the official client running under Wine.

Ares originally worked with the Gnutella network, but six months after its creation in December 2002, we decided to start developing their own independent and decentralized network, mounted on a P2P network architecture type “leaf nodes-and-supernodes “providing a broadcasting-type search inspired by the architecture of the Gnutella P2P network, was born and began what would be the Ares Galaxy network. Many supporters of the program claim that it has search and download speeds higher than other P2P clients, in addition to fast network connection.

For a while, Ares Galaxy contains adware that was acceptable or not during the installation of this program, but its developers to realize that it was unethical adware withdrew all their installation packages.

The program was very popular among users because of the speed and flexibility of the protocol, the possibility of creating a network chat rooms, ease of use, among other things. Because of the advantages of this program and the loss of popularity of Kazaa, the small decentralized project, if an experimental network with less than 10,000 users, quickly became a large-scale network with approximately one million users in 2005.

Ares Galaxy network grew apace, but the client to access it was not up to par, since the creators released versions of Ares Galaxy with a slow release to a year and each version was not always very different from above, only minor repairs were made between version and release. Because of this slow development of the client there were other alternative P2P clients, such as Warez P2P.

In the second half of 2005, the developers of Ares Galaxy, he realized how popular it proved to be his project and that were not enough to cope in the maintenance of the server or the development of the project and possibly for fear of a lawsuit because it was the time attacking the P2P developers (closure of the company eDonkey) – decided to change the free license of its program by a free license and thus transform it into free software under the GPL. Since then the project is on the site that offers free server and other options that allow easy monitoring of the development of free software.

In early 2007, Ares Galaxy reached version 2.0.9, which introduces significant changes in both the program and within the proposed development of Ares Galaxy. It has preserved the GUI based on Windows Vista operating system, compatibility with the BitTorrent protocol client that allows downloading content from the BitTorrent network and separation of the source code of chat that was within the code of Ares Galaxy and spent a be independent of the client, in addition to re-integrate the browser, which included the Gecko rendering engine, more efficient and faster than Trident, which was used in previous versions.

Already in 2008, became very common is a connection problem in version 2.0.9, which by that Ares will stay in state “connected” and it is because Ares only works on the user account that was installed (if it was as an administrator and then go to another account, the program stays in connecting). For this problem, out false solutions unofficial, based on small files to be placed in the folder of Ares. This solution worked but only partially, since it still had to use the program from the account that was originally installed at first. [Citation needed] On November 24, 2008 version 2.1.0 was released a year and a half after the previous release version. Version 2.1.0 solved this problem of connection. [1] Besides this, the P2P client introduces new changes: a reduction in time delay the program by connecting the first time you use it, added new skins (Esmeralda , Borravino and Bloody) besides the two already had (General and OsThemes), and modified the control panel chat.

Subsequently released version that no longer comes with built-in browser. The latest version is which has improvements in the way of uploading files and enhanced support for BitTorrent.

It is known that since they took the initiative to free Ares, was left to update the version “lite” of this P2P client, which was stranded in version 1.8.1 for unknown reasons and is now considered discontinued when no receive any update since September 2005 but is still online at their official website to download the client and its source code.

Direct Connect is a peer-to-peer

Direct Connect is a peer-to-peer written by Jon Hess NeoModus. Upon creation, other clients have appeared to implement the Direct Connect protocol. Direct Connect clients connect to a central hub.

The protocol is based on FTP. Originally protocol closed, it was able to implement as free software exist different customers for the network, such as MLDonkey, DC + + (implemented in C + + and first client Free Software for Direct Connect) and ODC (based on DC + +) for Windows or Shakespear for Mac OS X .

Its operation is based on central servers called hubs. This hub contains a list of all customers who have connected to it, and all the files you are sharing. When you do a search on the hub, it returns all files that relate to the customers wanted and what you have, then the requesting client downloads the file in question via FTP directly from the client that owns the file searched, completely disassociating makes the computer hub (in this sense, the hub can be interpreted as a directory of files that only shows who has what). No problems with excessive bandwidth, because when there is a machine on the hub you can find all the files you share with your hash, being able to find other files with the same hash but different name for whatever reason under theory are the same file hashes.

The person riding a hub can put all the features that customers want to have to use it: open sockets (number of concurrent downloads), number of gigabytes shared banning of content (eg pornography) … This allows for minimum standards of quality in different subnets that are created with each hub, avoiding lammers.

BitTorrent – A P2P

The method used by BitTorrent to distribute files in many respects is similar to that used by eDonkey 2000 network, but generally the nodes in the network share and down larger amounts of files, reducing the available bandwidth for each transfer. BitTorrent transfers are usually very fast since all the nodes in a focus group to transfer a single file or a collection thereof. Besides the eDonkey2000 protocol does not reward users who share a higher bandwidth. However, we must clarify that the most widespread client for the eDonkey, eMule, it incorporates a credit system to reward the most share.

Unlike other sharing networks, BitTorrent does not include a file search mechanism. BitTorrent users will find on their own torrent files required by the protocol. Typically, these files can be downloaded from websites that publish large files (such as GNU / Linux) or from web search indexes (such as The Pirate Bay, or Bitgle Ktorrents).

Throughout 2010 began to be felt a new client called Tribler which implements a distributed search system, which does not depend on any server to locate a file, this implies a total independence of trackers for download, though of course can coexist with the traditional web search and trackers.

BitTorrent was originally set to Python but today you can find clients written in C or Java for example.

According CacheLogic BitTorrent in 2005 was used in particular in Asia, while eDonkey2000 is preferred in Europe and America.


Gnutella is a distributed software project to create a network protocol for peer file sharing without a central server.

The first customer for this network was developed by Justin Frankel and Tom Pepper of Nullsoft, now a division of AOL, in early 2000. On 14 March the same year, the program was released for download from the Nullsoft site. The source code was released shortly later, under the terms of the GPL. The event was immediately announced on Slashdot, and the program was downloaded en masse that day.

The next day, AOL stopped the availability of the program because of legal issues and restrained Nullsoft division to continue working on the project. This was not the end of Gnutella, a few days later the protocol had been deciphered by reverse engineering and various open source clones began to emerge. This parallel development of different customers for different groups continues today how it is made Gnutella development today.

The Gnutella network is an alternative decentralized, semi-centralized systems as Napster. The initial popularity of the network was further stimulated after the fall of Napster in 2001 for legal reasons. This growth in popularity quickly revealed the limits of the initial protocol scalability.

In early 2001, some changes in protocol (initially released as closed source clients) improved to some extent the scalability of the protocol. Instead of treating each user as a client and server, some users began to be treated as “ultrapeer”, routing search requests and responses for users connected to them.

The name ‘Gnutella’ is a pun on GNU and Nutella (chocolate candy). Supposedly, Frankel and Pepper ate a lot of Nutella as they worked on the original project and would use the GNU GPL for the program ended. Gnutella is not directly associated with the GNU Project.

FastTrack is a network protocol

FastTrack is a network protocol where you can exchange files such as music, documents, among others. It is characterized by the innovative use of supernodes to ease the burden of the servers used in the network. it has the ability to resume interrupted downloads and download simultaneously several file segments from multiple peers. It is used by file-sharing services Kazaa, and its variants, “Mammoth, iMesh, and others.
Number of network users, FastTrack, eDonkey and Gnutella in the period January 2003 – May 2006.

While the FastTrack protocol used in file-sharing software, other applications have the same name as John Mackin of Books and Netscape FastTrack FastTrack.

The FastTrack protocol and Kazaa client were the result of months of work by the developers of Sweden Niklas Zennstrom, Janus Friis of Denmark and the group of programmers led by Jaan Tallinn, the same as Skype will create later. It was introduced in March 2001 by Dutch company Consumer Empowerment “company run by themselves. It was in that war which broke out P2P networks of the first generation and when Napster is closed in July. The Consumer Empowerment is sold to Australia’s Sharman Networks in January 2002 because he spent about $ 100,000 a month in legal trouble. [2] By early 2003, FastTrack was the network’s most popular file distribution, being used primarily to exchange music, movies and software. All this because FastTrack responds to a need to share information from users who had already seen a number of customers away from the first generation P2P as Audiogalaxy and Napster. All this process created a vacuum in the world of P2P sharing, which led to the second generation of clients such as eDonkey, FastTrack, BitTorrent and Gnutella. Then more specifically FastTrack-Kazaa-formerly called KaZaA became the spearhead of the Internet. However, the decline in 2004 caused by the lawsuits and other legal efforts towards protecting the copyright of the RIAA and MPAA continues until today. Currently, just over one and a half million users daily living FastTrack network.


JXTA (Juxtapose) is a platform peer-to-peer open source created by Sun Microsystems in 2001. This platform is defined as a set of protocols based on XML. These protocols allow network devices to exchange messages among themselves. JXTA P2P framework is more mature than currently exists. It was also designed to allow a wide range of devices (computers, mobile phones, PDAs) to communicate in a decentralized manner.

As JXTA is based on a series of protocols, in theory, can be ported to any modern computer language. Currently, the Java implementation of JXTA is the most advanced. There are versions for C and C + +, and JXTA JXTA-C-C + + respectively.

JXTA creates a virtual network that allows peers interact with each other, even though some of them are behind firewalls, NATs or use different network transports. In addition, each peer is identified by a unique ID, a URN SHA-1 160-bit implementation of Java, allowing peers to change their direction but retain their identification number.

Kad is a P2P sharing network

Kad is a P2P sharing network that uses a variant of the Kademlia protocol. It was created by the developers of eMule, and is incompatible with the Overnet network and intranet although both use essentially the same protocol.

Most Kad network users are also connected to eDonkey network servers. Kad clients typically query known nodes on the eDonkey network to find an initial node on the Kad network.

It’s like going to a party of collaboration, where each guest (customer) has a product and shares it with the rest of the guests at the party. Each of the guests have something to share, without a host (master server), each guest has served as the others who need it, and take from others what they want.

C2C – refers to private transactions

C2C refers to private transactions between consumers that can take place through the exchange of emails or using P2P (Peer to Peer)

A simple method for businesses to engage in electronic commerce involves placing a special offer on the website and allow customers to place orders online. No need for electronic payments.

At the other end of the scale are companies that are based entirely on electronic commerce. Companies such as these not only allow credit card payments over the Internet, but adopt new forms of payment such as electronic money or e-cash.

C2C is the abbreviation for Internet marketing strategy that represents the costumer (CONSUMER TO CONSUMER) client to client. This term is used to define business strategy in the commercial network that aims to link the end user with another end user. C2C Internet strategy should be one that defines a business whose aim is to facilitate the marketing of products or services among individuals, such as e-bay or

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